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Genetics principles

The theoretical-scientific basis of Paternity Test

The Genes are units of inheritance usually occurring at specific locations, or loci, on a chromosome. Physically, a gene is a sequence of DNA bases that specify the order of amino acids in an entire protein or, in some cases, a portion of a protein. A gene may be made up of hundreds of thousands of DNA bases. Genes are responsible for the hereditary traits in plants and animals.

The Alleles are alternate forms or varieties of a gene. The alleles for a trait occupy the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes and thus govern the same trait. However, because they are different, their action may result in different expressions of that trait.

The Chromosomes are thread-like, gene-carrying bodies in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are composed primarily of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein. They are visible only under magnification during certain stages of cell division. Humans have 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell and 23 in each sex cell.

The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a large organic molecule that stores the genetic code for the synthesis of proteins. DNA is composed of sugars, phosphates and four bases (A adenine, G guanine, C cytosine and T thymine) arranged in a double helix shaped molecular structure. Segments of DNA in chromosomes correspond to specific genes.

The Test
Obtaining a DNA profile (DNA profiling) means studying the particular segments of the DNA itself mostly polymorphic known as microsatellites (STR). These segments have a variability very high to acquire, in every individual, a typical layout, similar to a genetic fingerprint, called "DNA fingerprint".
   The Genetics

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